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The Computer History

Since time immemorial, the data processing has been done by humans. Humans also find mechanical appliances and electronics to help human beings in the calculation and processing of data in order to achieve results faster. Computers that we meet today is a long evolution of human inventions sejah Yore form of mechanical or electronic devices.



Today computers and supporting devices have been included in every aspect of life and work. Existing computers now have a greater ability than ordinary mathematical calculations. Among them are computer systems in gauze supermarket groceries able to read the code, telephone exchange that handles millions of calls and communications, computer networks and internet mennghubungkan various places in the world.

After all of the data processing devices since ancient times till now can we divided into four major categories.

1. Equipment manuals: the data processing equipment is very simple, and most important factor in the use of tools is to use the power of human hands

2. Mechanical Equipment: the equipment that has been shaped by hand-driven mechanical manually

3. Electronic Mechanical Equipment: Mechanical equipment driven by electric motor automatically

4. Electronic equipment: Equipment that works in electronic full paper will provide a snapshot of the history of computers from time to time, especially the data processing devices in groups 2, 3, and 4. Classification of computer-based generation will also be discussed in detail in this paper.

TRADITIONAL calculators and Mechanical CALCULATOR


Abacus, which appeared about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still used in some places until today, can be regarded as the beginning of computing machines.


This tool allows users to perform calculations using the grain shear sebuh arranged on shelves. The merchants in those days, using abacus to calculate the trade transaction. Along with the emergence of a pencil and paper, especially in Europe, the abacus lost its popularity.

After almost 12 centuries, came another invention in terms of computing machines. In 1642, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who was then 18 years old, found what he called a numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator) to help his father make tax calculations.

This brass rectangular box called the Pascaline, used eight serrated wheel to add up numbers to eight digits. This tool is a calculator tool based on the number ten. The weakness of this tool is only terbataas to do a sum.

Year 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfred Wilhem von Leibniz (1646-1716) to improve the Pascaline by making machines that can multiply. Just like its predecessor, this mechanical device works by using the serrated wheels.

By studying the notes and drawings made by Pascal, Leibniz was able to refine their equipment. It was only in 1820, mechanical calculators became popular.

Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar find a machine that can perform four basic arithmetic functions. Colmar mechanical calculator, arithometer, presenting a more practical approach in the calculation because of the apparatus may perform the sum, subtraction, multiplication, and division. With his ability, arithometer widely used until World War I.

Together with Pascal and Leibniz, Colmar helped build a mechanical computing era. Beginning of the actual computer seoarng formed by British mathematics professor, Charles Babbage (1791-1871). In 1812, Babbage noticed the natural compatibility between the mechanical and mathematical machinery: a mechanical engine is very good at doing the same tasks repeatedly without mistake; being a simple repetition of mathematics requires a tertenu steps. That problem has grown to placing kemudain mechanical machines as a tool to answer the needs of mechanics. Babbage's first effort to answer this problem arose in 1822 when he proposed a machine to perform calculations differensil equation. The machine was called the Differential Engine. Using steam, the machine can store programs and can perform calculations and print the results automatically. After working with Differential Engine for ten years, Babbage was suddenly inspired to start making general-purpose computer first, called the Analytical Engine. Babbage's assistant, Augusta's King (1815-1842) has an important role in making this machine. He helped revising the plan, seek funding from UK government, and communicating the specifications Engine Anlytical public.

In addition, a good understanding of Augusta about this machine makes it possible to put instructions dlam machines and also makes it the first female programmer. In 1980, the U.S. Defense Department named a programming language with the ADA's name as a tribute to him.

Babbage steam engine, although never completed, it seems very primitive compared to today's standards. However, these tools describe the basic element of a modern computer and also reveals an important concept. Consisting of about 50 000 components, the basic design of the Analytical Engine using perforated cards (Holes) which contains the operating instructions for the machine.

In 1889, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) also applies the principle of perforated cards to perform calculations. His first task is to find a faster way to perform calculations for the United States Census Bureau. The previous census conducted in year 1880 it took seven years to complete the calculations. With the development of
population, the Bureau estimates that it takes ten years to complete the census calculations.

Hollerith used perforated cards to enter the census data is then processed by the tool mechanically. A card can store up to 80 variables. By using the tool, the results of the census can be completed within six weeks. Besides having the advantage in speed, the card serves as storage media data. Calculation error rate performance is also reduced drastically. Hollerith later develop these tools and menjualny to the public. He founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 which later became International Business Machine (1924) after some time of the merger. Other companies such as Remington Rand and Burroghs pembac also produces tools for a business card perforation. Perforated cards used by businesses to permrosesan nd government data until 1960.

In the next period, several engineers made other new enemuan p. Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) created a calculator to solve differential equations in the year 1931.

The machine can solve complex differential equations that have been considered complicated by academics. The machine was very large and heavy as hundreds serrations and shaft are required to perform the calculation. In 1903, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry tried to make the computer an electrical circuit to apply Boolean algebra electrically. This approach is based on the work of George Boole (1815-1864) in the form of a binary system of algebra, which states that any mathematical equation can be expressed as true or false. By applying the conditions are right and wrong into the electrical circuit in the form of connected-disconnected, Atanasoff and Berry made the first electric machine in 1940. But they stopped because the project lost funding sources.

FIRST GENERATION COMPUTER

With the onset of the Second World War, the countries involved in the war sought to develop computers to exploit their potential strategic computer. This increased funding for computer development projects hastened technical progress.


In 1941, Konrad Zuse, a German engineer to build a computer, the Z3, to design airplanes and missiles Party allies also made other progress in the development of computing power. In 1943, the British completed the secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to decode German-used secrets. The Colossus's impact influenced the development of the computer industry because of two reasons. First, Colossus was not a versatile computer (general-purpose computer), it was only designed to decode secret messages. Secondly, the existence of the machine was kept secret until decades after the war ended.


Work done by the Americans at that time to produce an other progress. Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), a Harvard engineer working with IBM, succeeded in producing electronic calculators for the U.S. Navy. The calculator is a length of half a football field and has a range of 500 miles along the cable. The Harvd-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I, an electronic relay computer. He uses electromagnetic signals to move the mechanical components. Beropreasi machine is slow (it takes 3-5 seconds per calculation) and inflexible (in order of calculations can not be changed.) The calculator can perform basic arithmetic and more complex equations.


Another computer development at present is the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), which was created by the cooperation between the United States government and the University of Pennsylvania. Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer was such a huge machine that consume power equal to 160kW.

This machine was designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC is a versatile computer (general-purpose computers) that work 1000 times faster than Mark I.

In the mid 1940s, John von Neumann (1903-1957) joined the team of University of Pennsylvania computer desin build concept that the next 40 years is still used in computer engineering. Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with sebuh memory to accommodate both programs or data. This technique allows the computer to stop at some point and then resume her job back. The key factor of the von Neumann architecture is the central processing unit (CPU), which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source. In 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) made by Remington Rand, became the first commercial computer that uses the von Neumann architecture model.

Both the United States Census Bureau and General Electric have a UNIVAC. One of the impressive results achieved by the UNIVAC dalah success in predicting victory Dwilight D. Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election.

First generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions were made specifically for a particular task. Each computer has a program different binary-coded-called "machine language" (machine language). This causes the computer is difficult to be programmed and limit the speed.

Another feature is the use of first generation computer vacuum tube (which makes the computer at that time are very large) nd the magnetic cylinder for data storage.

SECOND GENERATION COMPUTER

In 1948, the invention of the transistor greatly influenced the development of a computer. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in television, radio, and computers. As a result, the size of electronic machinery has been reduced drastically.


The transistor used in computers began in 1956. In other findings in the form of development-magnetic core memory to help the development of second generation computers smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than its predecessor.

The first machine that utilizes this new technology is a supercomputer. IBM makes supercomputer named Stretch, and Sprery-Rand makes a computer named LARC. These computers, which was developed for atomic energy laboratories, could handle large amounts of data, a capability that is needed by researchers atoms. The machine was very expensive and tend to be too complex for business computing needs, thereby limiting its popularity. There are only two LARC has ever installed and used: one at the Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and others in the U.S. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington DC The second-generation computers replaced machine language with assembly language. Assembly language is a language that uses abbreviations to replace the binary code.

In the early 1960s, began to appear a successful second-generation computer in business, in universities and in government. The second generation of computers is an entirely computer using transistors. They also have components that can be associated with the computer at this time: a printer, storage on disks, memory, operating systems and programs.

One important example on the computer was the IBM 1401 which received wide secaa industry. In 1965, almost all large businesses use computers The second generation to process financial information.

Programs stored in computers and programming language that is in it gives flexibility to the computer. Flexibility is increased performance at a reasonable price for business use. With this concept, the computer can print invoices and then run the consumer purchases the product design or calculate payroll.

Some programming languages began to appear at that time. Programming language Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) came into common use. This programming language replaces complicated machine code with words, sentences, and math formulas more easily understood by humans. This facilitates a person to program and manage the computer. Various New types of careers (programmer, analyst, and computer systems expert). Software industry also began to emerge and evolve during this second-generation computers.

THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER

Although the transistors in many respects the vacuum tube, but transistors generate substantial heat, which could potentially damage the internal parts of a computer. Quartz stone (quartz rock) eliminates this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combines three electronic components in a small silicon disc made of quartz sand.


In Scientists later managed to fit more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. Result, computers became ever smaller as the components can be squeezed onto the chip. Other third-generation development is the use of operating system (operating system) which allows the engine to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory.


FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTER

After IC, the only place to go was down the size of circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) could fit hundreds of components on a chip. In the 1980s, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) contains thousands of components in a single chip.


Ultra-Large Scale Integration (ULSI) increased that number into the millions. Ability to install so many components in a chip that berukurang half coins encourage lower prices and the size of a computer. It also increased their power, efficiency and reliability. Intel chips are made in the year 4004 brought progress in IC 1971 by putting all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and control input / output) in a chip is very small. Previously, the IC is made to do a certain task specific.

Now, a microprocessor can be manufactured and then programmed to meet all the requirements. Soon, every household devices like microwave ovens, television, nd car with electronic fuel injection equipped with microprocessors.

Such developments allow ordinary people to use a regular computer. Computers no longer be a dominant big companies or government agencies.

In the mid-1970s, computer assemblers to offer their computer products to the general public. These computers, called minikomputer, sold with a software package that is easy to use by the layman. The most popular software at the time was word processing and spreadsheet programs. In the early 1980s, video games like Atari 2600 consumer interest in home computers are more sophisticated and can be programmed.

In 1981, IBM introduced the use of Personal Computer (PC) for use in homes, offices and schools. The number of PCs that use jumped from 2 million units in 1981 to 5.5 million units in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs in use. Computers continue its evolution toward a smaller size, of computers that are on the table
(Desktop computers) into a computer that can be inserted into the bag (laptop), or even a computer that can be grasped (palmtops).

IBM PC compete with Apple Macintosh computers in the fight over the market. Apple Macintosh became famous for popularizing the graphical system on his computer, while his rival was still using a text-based computer. Macintosh also popularized the use of mouse devices.

At the present time, we know the journey with the use of IBM compatible CPU: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (series of CPUs made by Intel). Also we know AMD K6, Athlon, etc.. This is all included in the fourth generation of computer classes.

Along with the proliferation of computer usage in the workplace, new ways to explore the potential to be developed. Along with the increased strength of a small computer, these computers can be connected together in a network to share a memory, software, information, and also to be able to communicate with each other.

Computer networks allow computers to form a single electronic cooperation to complete a process task. By using direct cabling (also called local area network, LAN), or telephone cable, the network can become very large.


FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER


Defining a fifth-generation computer becomes quite difficult because this stage is still very young. Examples are the fifth generation computer imaginative fictional HAL9000 computer from the novel by Arthur C. Clarke titled 2001: Space Odyssey. HAL displays all the desired functions from a fifth-generation computer. With artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence), HAL may have enough reason to do percapakan with humans, using visual feedback, and learning from his own experience.


Although it may be the realization of HAL9000 still far from reality, many of the functions that had been established. Some computers can receive verbal instructions and be able to mimic human reasoning. The ability to translate a foreign language also becomes possible.

This facility looks simpler. However, such facilities become much more complicated than expected when programmers realized that human pengertia highly dependent on the context and meaning rather than simply translate the words directly.

Many advances in computer design and technology enables the creation semkain fifth generation computer. Two engineering advances which are mainly parallel processing capabilities, which will replace the non-Neumann model. Non Neumann model will be replaced with a system that is able to coordinate many CPUs to work in unison.

Another advancement is the superconducting technology that allows the flow of electrically without any obstacles, which will accelerate the speed of information.

Japan is a country well known in the jargon of socialization and the fifth generation computer project. Institution ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) was also formed to make it happen. Many news stating that this project has failed, but some other information that the success of this fifth generation computer project will bring a new change paradigm computerization in the world. We are waiting for which information is more valid and bore fruit.

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